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Cracking the Code: The New Education Revolution
Ideology
Delivery Systems
Teaching Styles
Classroom Variables
Benchmarks
State Assessments
Publishers
Constructivist Theory
Behaviorism
Cognitive Structures
Control Theory
Social Learning (Observational)
Scaffolding
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Social Process of Cognitive Development
Communal Learning
Neuroscience
Learning Styles
Multiple Intelligences
Left-Brained & Right-Brained
Theories on How People Learn
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Constructivist Theory
The emphasis is placed on the learner or the student rather than the teacher or the instructor. It is the learner who interacts with objects and events and thereby gains an understanding of the features held by such objects or events. The learner, therefore, constructs his/her own conceptualizations and solutions to problems. Learner autonomy and initiative is accepted and encouraged. Read more

Behaviorism
Behaviorism can be characterized as a type of psychology that examines the overt, observable actions and reactions of an individual. Instead of looking at the mind, behaviorists study the unbiased, environmental conditions that influence a person’s behavior.
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Cognitive Structures
Cognitive structures are patterns of physical or mental action that underlie specific acts of intelligence and correspond to stages of child development (see Schemas). There are four primary cognitive structures (i.e., development stages) according to Piaget: sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, and formal operations. While the stages of cognitive development identified by Piaget are associated with characteristic age spans, they vary for every individual. 
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Control Theory
Control theory implies an active role, or responsibility towards ones behavior. Glasser states, "We almost always have choices, and the better the choice, the more we will be in control of our lives." This includes choices of not only how to act but how we feel as well. How we feel is not controlled by others or events, unless we choose to allow it to. Read more

Social Learning (Observational)
Social Learning (Observational) is based primarily on the work of Albert Bandura. He and his colleagues were able to demonstrate through a variety of experiments that the application of consequences was not necessary for learning to take place. Rather learning could occur through the simple processes of observing someone else's activity.
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Scaffolding
Scaffolding must begin from what is near to the student's experience and build to what is further from their experience.
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Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) in which the learner, teacher, and content interact with a problem that needs resolution. Vygotsky (1978) maintained the child follows the adult's example and gradually develops the ability to do certain tasks without help or assistance. He called the difference between what a child can do with help and what he or she can do without guidance the "zone of proximal development" (ZPD).
 In other words, ZPD is the discrepancy between children's actual mental age and the level they reach in solving problems with assistance. This ZPD concept also reinforces the importance of the principle of readiness. The readiness principle reinforces the need for a learner to be at a point of readiness for learning certain material. Read more

Social Process of Cognitive Development
Social process of cognitive development, introduced by Vygotsky, describes the general law of genetic development, which states that every complex mental function was first an interaction between people. Bruner also believes the learner's participation in culture aides their psychological development. Much of Vygotsky's work influenced the constructivist paradigm.
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Communal Learning
Communal Learning Lave and Wenger (1991) saw the acquisition of knowledge as a social process in which people participated at different levels depending on their authority in a group, i.e. whether they were a newcomer to the group or had been an active participant for sometime. The process by which a newcomer learns from the rest of the group was central to their notion of a CoP; they termed this process Legitimate Peripheral Participation (LPP).
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Neuroscience
Cognitive neuroscientists study functions such as perception and memory in animals.  In humans, they use non-invasive brain scans -- such as positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging -- to uncover routes of neural processing that occur during language, problem solving and other tasks.

Behavioral neuroscientists study the processes underlying behavior in humans and in animals. Their tools include microelectrodes, which measure electrical activity of neurons, and brain scans, which show parts of the brain that are active during activities such as seeing, speaking or remembering.
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Scientists caution that the brain is complex and, while research has revealed some significant findings, there is no widespread agreement about their applicability to the general population or to education in particular. Nevertheless, brain research provides rich possibilities for education and reports of studies from this field have become popular topics in some educational journals. Read more

Learning Styles
Learning styles are simply different approaches or ways of learning. The types of learning styles include: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learners.
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Multiple Intelligences
Multiple Intelligences are seven different ways to demonstrate intellectual ability.
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Left-Brained & Right-Brained
One popularization of mind-based research, the hemisphericity theory, has attributed certain learning styles and preferences to dominance of the left or the right side of the brain. This dichotomy seems to explain observable differences among learners and designations of  have appeared in our popular culture. The original studies that supported the theory, however, involved severing (either through an accident or by surgery) the band of nerve fibers, the corpus callosum, that connects the two hemispheres. In a normal brain the two sides of the brain operate together, but with the connection severed, the two halves cannot communicate. The popular interpretation of the hemisphere explanation of personal learning styles ignored the complex, interactive reality
of the two sides working together. While understanding the brain's hemispheres is undoubtedly relevant to education, children cannot be categorized as exclusively left-brained or right-brained learners.
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